Why are submarines so slow?

Submarines are among the most fascinating and powerful machines in the world. They can dive deep into the oceans and perform various tasks, such as spying, attacking, exploring, or rescuing. However, they are also known for being very slow compared to other vehicles. The average speed of a submarine is around 5 to 10 knots, which is equivalent to 6 to 12 miles per hour. This is much slower than the speed of a car, which can travel at around 60 miles per hour. Why are submarines so slow? There are several reasons for this.

One reason is that submarines are designed to be stealthy and avoid detection, which requires them to move slowly to minimize the noise they make. Submarines use propellers or jet propulsion to move through the water, but these also create sound waves that can be picked up by sonar or hydrophones. The faster the submarine moves, the louder it becomes, and the easier it is for enemies to locate and track it. Therefore, submarines have to balance their speed and their stealth, and often choose to sacrifice the former for the latter.

Another reason is that submarines are bulky and heavy, and not designed for speed, but rather for endurance and carrying large payloads. Submarines have to carry a lot of equipment and weapons, such as torpedoes, missiles, mines, sensors, batteries, fuel, and crew. They also have to withstand the high pressure and low temperature of the deep sea. All these factors add weight and drag to the submarine, making it harder to accelerate and maneuverer. Submarines are also limited by their power source, which can be diesel-electric or nuclear. Diesel-electric submarines have to surface periodically to recharge their batteries using air-breathing engines, which reduces their speed and stealth. Nuclear submarines can stay submerged for longer periods of time, but they also generate more heat and noise.

Despite their slow speed, submarines are still an important part of modern warfare and science. They can carry out missions that other vehicles cannot do, such as attacking enemy ships or submarines, launching strategic nuclear strikes, protecting friendly ships or aircraft carriers, conducting covert operations behind enemy lines, exploring and mapping the ocean floor, collecting data and samples of marine life, water, rocks, and minerals for scientific analysis, recovering lost items from sunken ships or planes, or offering underwater sightseeing tours or rides to visitors. Submarines have changed the course of history and enriched our knowledge and culture.


Reasons Why China’s Military is Weaker Than You Think

China’s Military: The Hidden Weaknesses You Didn’t Know!  China aims to be the top global power by 2049, but can its military keep up? Despite modernizing its forces, issues lurk beneath the surface. From scandalous failures in 2023-24 to personnel and equipment problems, discover why the PLA might not be as strong as it seems.

What Americans are really thinking!

Newsmax’s “What Americans Really Think” features Carl Higbie, who offers direct commentary on current events and the general sentiment of the average American. His nine-minute segment often resonates with viewers both in the United States and abroad, including Australia. Many Australians have expressed similar views to those highlighted by Higbie. He articulates concerns and opinions that echo sentiments felt by people worldwide. Watch his commentary to see if his perspectives align with your own views on the current state of affairs.

CLICK LINK to watch


Vale 2793341 Graham Thomas Dorrington – 2RAR

I have been advised that Graham Dorrington passed away suddenly at home on 14 July 2024

The details for Graham’s funeral are as follows:

Relatives, friends and fellow veterans are respectfully invited to attend Graham’s funeral service to be held on Tuesday, 23rd July 2024 at 1pm in the chapel of the Coffs Harbour Crematorium, Coramba Road, Karangi.

*For those that cannot attend, you are invited to view the livestream on the following link:



Tragic Downing of Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 Remembered

On July 17, 2014, Malaysia Airlines Flight 17, en route from Amsterdam to Kuala Lumpur, was tragically shot down over the Ukraine-Russia border. All 298 passengers and crew members aboard the Boeing 777 perished in the disaster. The victims included citizens from various countries, with the majority being Dutch, alongside nationals from Malaysia, Australia, Indonesia, the United Kingdom, Germany, Belgium, the Philippines, Canada, and New Zealand. Among the deceased were 38 Australians, adding to the global impact of this tragedy.

In 2015, Dutch investigators concluded that the aircraft was struck by a Russian-made Buk surface-to-air missile, launched from an area controlled by pro-Russian separatists in eastern Ukraine. This conclusion was supported by extensive forensic analysis, including missile fragments found in the wreckage and evidence from satellite imagery. Despite these findings and international calls for accountability, Russia has consistently denied any involvement, instead attributing the attack to Ukrainian forces.

A decade later, the downing of MH17 remains a poignant reminder of the ongoing geopolitical tensions between Russia and Ukraine. The tragedy underscored the vulnerability of civilian lives amidst armed conflicts and the enduring quest for justice and accountability for the victims and their families. As the world reflects on this sombre anniversary, it serves as a testament to the innocent lives lost and the enduring impact of such incidents on the global community.

Join the Bravery Trek: A Five-Week Challenge to Support Australian Defence Force Veterans

Registrations are now open for Bravery Trust’s annual five-week physical challenge, the Bravery Trek. This event serves as a unified symbol of support for all who serve in the Australian Defence Force (ADF) and aligns with Veterans’ Health Week.

Event Overview

The Bravery Trek is a virtual challenge, allowing participants to trek anywhere while raising awareness about the financial support available to veterans and their families. This initiative highlights a commitment to those who sustain illness or injury as a result of their service.

Community Engagement

“Bravery Trek unites community groups, workplace engagement programs, and corporate sponsors, providing an opportunity to say thank you to those who serve our country and raise awareness of the ways we can support our veterans,” said Bravery Trust CEO Garth Callender. “We receive incredible support from within the ADF, and we are seeing growing numbers of individuals who have never served or worked in Defence signing up to show their support by raising funds and awareness.”

Fundraising and Support

Bravery Trek raises funds to provide a financial safety net for veterans and their families facing hardship. It also offers longer-term financial counselling to help rebuild lives. The charity provides a free, veteran-specific financial counselling service to all current and ex-serving members of the ADF, as well as a financial fitness program to assist them in avoiding or reducing financial hardship by developing an understanding of financial options and building better money habits.

“Finances have long been a hard conversation to start,” Callender noted. “Veterans are, by nature, proud people who can find it hard to ask for help when needed. Getting people together and raising awareness through Bravery Trek is a way we can initiate and normalize some of those hard conversations and encourage people to reach out for help as soon as their financial circumstances change. We know there is an intrinsic link between financial hardship and suicide, and through financial counselling and financial support, we can help to save lives.”

Sponsorship and Participation

Leidos will again be the major sponsor of Bravery Trek, supported by Wilson Security, Birdon, Defence Bank, and Brooks. This year marks the fifth year of Bravery Trek and celebrates the five domains of Defence over five weeks, from 8 September to 12 October. Participants will be rewarded with virtual achievement badges as they complete either 10 kilometres or 50 kilometres each week.

Registration is free at www.braverytrek.com.au, with a complimentary T-shirt for those who raise $55 before 24 August and a bespoke Bravery Trek Challenge coin for participants who raise $150 during the five weeks of Bravery Trek.


The MOST INTENSE Battle of the Vietnam War (GRAPHIC FOOTAGE)

It’s June 1967. The Jungle is as inhospitable as it can be for the paratroopers of the 173rd Airborne as they sweep the area for the enemy. Although the thick fog and dense foliage prevent them from seeing further than just a couple of yards, they know the enemy is close. Suddenly, the silence is broken by the sound of gunfire. A rain of bullets starts flying through the air, striking paratroopers down. Wave after wave of NVA soldiers begin to attack their position and the clash turns into a brutal close-quarters fight. Paratroopers fight hand-to-hand, using their bayonets, rifles, and even their bare hands to fend off the determined enemy. They get to taste the Hell of the Vietnam Highlands in what would become one of the most brutal battles of the Vietnam War…the Battle of Dak To.

Exercise Austral Shield 2024 Underway: Testing Defence Capabilities in Northern Australia

Australian Defence Force elements both Full-time and Reserve have commenced Exercise Austral Shield 2024, evaluating Defence’s capacity for rapid deployment across the nation’s northern regions. The exercise began on 12 July, aiming to assess Defence’s ability to project power and deploy forces to remote locations across northern Australia.

The training operations will occur around Derby in Western Australia, Darwin, Cairns, and Christmas Island. Defence anticipates that this exercise will enhance regional security through a sustained Defence presence in the north, employing assets across land, air, and sea. The Australian Army has alerted local communities to expect increased military activity and not to be alarmed by the presence of Defence personnel.

Exercise Austral Shield will conclude on 28 July 2024. Brigadier Damian Hill AM, the Exercise Director, stated that the exercise will test Defence’s ability to form a Joint Task Force from both full-time and Reserve elements while providing a realistic training scenario. “This will involve security and response forces from the 13th Brigade, 11th Brigade, and Regional Force Surveillance Units, who will deploy as part of an integrated Joint Task Force alongside other air and maritime assets,” BRIG Hill explained.

“The ADF’s contribution to Exercise Austral Shield supports our shared vision of a peaceful region and significantly contributes to collective security,” he added. Due to the nature of Exercise Austral Shield, local residents in the training locations are likely to observe increased military activity, including simulated weapons fire and military vehicle traffic.

Simultaneously, Australia is hosting Exercise Pitch Black, a record-breaking training event testing the use of aircraft and battle management systems in complex scenarios. Aircraft operations are centred at the Northern Territory’s RAAF Base Darwin and Tindal, with additional tanker and transport aircraft operating from Queensland’s RAAF Base Amberley. This marks the first participation of an aircraft carrier, with the Italian flagship Cavour taking part.

Exercise Pitch Black involves 140 aircraft and 4,000 personnel, with participation from the Philippines, Spain, Italy, Papua New Guinea, and embedded personnel from Fiji and Brunei for the first time. Additional participants include France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, South Korea, Singapore, Thailand, the United Kingdom, the United States, and embedded personnel from Canada and New Zealand. “Exercise Pitch Black is our premier activity for international engagement, held every two years to build stronger ties with like-minded nations,” stated Exercise Director Air Commodore Peter Robinson.


New Chief of the Defence Force Admiral David Johnston: Vision and Priorities

Admiral David Johnston, the newly appointed Chief of the Defence Force (CDF), will focus on recruitment, innovative technology, and wellbeing as he assumes leadership of the Australian Defence Force (ADF). He is the first naval officer to lead the ADF since 2002.

On 10 July, command of the ADF was officially transferred from former CDF General Angus Campbell, AO, DSC, to former Vice CDF Admiral David Johnston, AC, RAN at a ceremonial parade at Russell Offices in Canberra. General Campbell, who had held the position since 7 July 2018, concluded his duties on 10 July this year.

“Defence provides a unique opportunity for multiple career paths, where what we do matters, whichever path you take,” Admiral Johnston said during the ceremonial parade. “I have enjoyed the many experiences that my career has provided and want that to be the experience of everyone.”

Addressing the current strategic environment, Admiral Johnston emphasized the importance of readiness to meet Australia’s security needs through a Strategy of Denial. “This requires a force that is well equipped, trained, confident, strong, and resilient. I recognize that the ADF workforce is my priority.”

Admiral Johnston outlined his commitment to growing the force through higher recruitment and improving retention. “Significant initiatives have been implemented and progress is being made, but we are not yet meeting our workforce targets. This requires us to look broadly and examine our employment models and how we best use our highly capable part-time and Reserve workforce.”

During his speech, Admiral Johnston pledged to serve with service, courage, respect, integrity, and excellence. “It is my great privilege to lead the Australian Defence Force. Our people serve Australia from home and afar every day with such great pride and dedication. I am extremely proud of the men and women of the ADF. Our people are fundamental to all we can and must achieve; you are our capability.”

He acknowledged the mental and physical costs of service for some personnel and committed to prioritizing programs that foster a culture of wellbeing. “Along with the senior leadership team at the department, I am fully committed to prioritizing programs that foster a culture that prioritizes wellbeing so our people can serve well, live well, and age well.”

Admiral Johnston also highlighted the ADF’s collaboration with the government to implement recommendations from the Royal Commission into Defence and Veteran Suicide. “The Australian Defence Force must be a force that is agile in time, location, and purpose,” he said. “I will focus on innovation and quicker adoption of technologies into the ADF. I will continue the emphasis on developing the integrated force, to realize the opportunities of space and cyber, and to grow our domestic, regional, and international partnerships, including with our industry partners.”

Expressing his commitment to the ADF personnel, veterans, and their families, Admiral Johnston said, “We must continue working as an integrated team to create an environment of service, respect, and commitment to our mission. Our families and loved ones are impacted by our service – their continuing and unwavering support to us is so vital and so valued.”

“To our sailors, soldiers, and aviators – I commit to giving my all, every day, as your CDF. I seek your support in giving our best to our shared national mission.”

VALE: 1736755 COLIN JEFFREY (Tinker) BELL – 4RAR

Colin passed away on Friday the 12th July 2024 at 1000hrs in Brisbane. Rest in Peace Digger, you will be greatly missed by all who knew him.

There will not be a funeral. The family will be holding a celebration of life on the 2nd August at 1300hrs at the Wynnum RSL Club, 174 Tingal Road Wynnum Qld.

Please dress in bright colours as requested by Colin.

Condolences may be sent to:

Mrs Judy Bell

7 Sebastion Street,

Manly West Qld 4179


Wendy M McLean J.P.(Qual) LM

Secretary/Membership Officer

4RAR Association Qld. Inc.’